September is Charcot-Marie-Tooth Awareness Month!

21 September 2018
Anonymous

This is to draw attention to a little-known but widespread condition. We estimate there are over 700 people living in New Zealand with CMT.

CMT is named for the three physicians who first identified it in 1886 - Jean-Martin Charcot and Pierre Marie in Paris, France, and Howard Henry Tooth in Cambridge, England. CMT, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), comprises a group of disorders that affect peripheral nerves. The peripheral nerves lie outside the brain and spinal cord and supply the muscles and sensory organs in the limbs. Disorders that affect the peripheral nerves are called peripheral neuropathies.

The neuropathy of CMT affects both motor and sensory nerves. Motor nerves cause muscles to contract and control voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing.

 A typical feature includes weakness of the foot and lower leg muscles, which may result in foot drop and a high-stepped gait with frequent tripping or falls. Foot deformities, such as high arches and hammertoes (a condition in which the middle joint of a toe bends upwards) are also characteristic due to weakness of the small muscles in the feet. Later in the disease progression, weakness and muscle atrophy may occur in the hands, resulting in difficulty with carrying out fine motor skills (the coordination of small movements usually in the fingers, hands, wrists, feet, and tongue).

Onset of symptoms is most often in adolescence or early adulthood, but some people develop symptoms in mid-adulthood. The severity of symptoms varies greatly among individuals and even among family members with the disease. Progression of symptoms is gradual. Pain can range from mild to severe, and some people may need to rely on foot or leg braces or other orthopaedic devices to maintain mobility. CMT is not considered a fatal disease and people with most forms of CMT have a normal life expectancy.